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An Etherwave-Theremin, assembled from Robert Moog's kit: the loop antenna on the left controls the volume while the upright antenna controls the pitch
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The theremin is associated with a very eerie sound, which has led to its use in movie soundtracks such as Miklos Rozsa's for Spellbound and The Lost Weekend and Bernard Herrmann's for The Day the Earth Stood Still and as the theme tune for the ITV drama Midsomer Murders. Theremins are also used in concert music (especially avant-garde and 20th- and 21st-century new music) and in popular music genres such as rock. Psychedelic Rock bands in particular, such as Hawkwind, have often used the theremin in their work.
 HistoryThe theremin was originally the product of Russian government-sponsored research into proximity sensors. The instrument was invented by a young Russian physicist named Lev Sergeivich Termen (known in the West as Léon Theremin) in October 1920 after the outbreak of the Russian civil war. After positive reviews at Moscow electronics conferences, Theremin demonstrated the device to Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. Lenin was so impressed with the device that he began taking lessons in playing it, commissioned six hundred of the instruments for distribution throughout the Soviet Union, and sent Theremin on a trip around the world to demonstrate the latest Soviet technology and the invention of electronic music. After a lengthy tour of Europe, during which time he demonstrated his invention to packed houses, Theremin found his way to the United States, where he patented his invention in 1928 (US1661058). Subsequently, Theremin granted commercial production rights to RCA.
Although the RCA Thereminvox (released immediately following the Stock Market Crash of 1929), was not a commercial success, it fascinated audiences in America and abroad. Clara Rockmore, a well-known thereminist, toured to wide acclaim, performing a classical repertoire in concert halls around the United States, often sharing the bill with Paul Robeson.
During the 1930s Lucie Bigelow Rosen was also taken up with the theremin and together with her husband Walter Bigelow Rosen provided both financial and artistic support to the development and popularisation of the instrument.
In 1938, Theremin left the United States, though the circumstances related to his departure are in dispute. Many accounts claim he was taken from his New York City apartment by KGB agents, taken back to the Soviet Union and made to work in a sharashka laboratory prison camp at Magadan, Siberia. He reappeared 30 years later. In his 2000 biography of the inventor, Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage, Albert Glinsky suggested the Russian had fled to escape crushing personal debts, and was then caught up in Stalin's political purges. In any case, Theremin did not return to the United States until 1991.
Second World War, the theremin soon fell into disuse with serious musicians, mainly because newer electronic instruments were introduced that were easier to play. However, a niche interest in the theremin persisted, mostly among electronics enthusiasts and kit-building hobbyists. One of these electronics enthusiasts, Robert Moog, began building theremins in the 1950s, while he was a high-school student. Moog subsequently published a number of articles about building theremins, and sold theremin kits which were intended to be assembled by the customer. Moog credited what he learned from the experience as leading directly to his groundbreaking synthesizer, the Moog.
Since the release of the film Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey in 1994, the instrument has enjoyed a resurgence in interest and has become more widely used by contemporary musicians. Even though many theremin sounds can be approximated on many modern synthesizers, some musicians continue to appreciate the expressiveness, novelty and uniqueness of using an actual theremin. The film itself has garnered excellent reviews.
Today Moog Music, Dan Burns of soundslikeburns.com Chuck Collins of theremaniacs.com Wavefront Technologies, Kees Enkelaar and Harrison Instruments manufacture performance-quality theremins. Theremin kit building remains popular with electronics buffs; kits are available from Moog Music, Theremaniacs, Harrison Instruments, PAiA Electronics, and Jaycar. On the other end of the scale, many low-end Theremins, some of which have only pitch control, are offered online and offline, sometimes advertised as toys.
 Operating principlesThe theremin is unique among musical instruments in that it is played without physical contact. The musician stands in front of the instrument and moves his or her hands in the proximity of two metal antennae. The distance from one antenna determines frequency (pitch), and the distance from the other controls amplitude (volume). Most frequently, the right hand controls the pitch and the left controls the volume, although some performers reverse this arrangement. Some low-cost theremins use a conventional, knob operated volume control and have only the pitch antenna.
The theremin uses the heterodyne principle to generate an audio signal. The instrument's pitch circuitry includes two radio frequency oscillators. One oscillator operates at a fixed frequency. The frequency of the other oscillator is controlled by the performer's distance from the pitch control antenna. The performer's hand acts as the grounded plate (the performer's body being the connection to ground) of a variable capacitor in an L-C (inductance-capacitance) circuit, which is part of the oscillator and determines its frequency. (Although the capacitance between the performer is on the order of picofarads or even hundreds of femtofarads, the circuit design gives a useful frequency shift.) The difference between the frequencies of the two oscillators at each moment allows the creation of a difference tone in the audio frequency range, resulting in audio signals that are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.
To control volume, the performer's other hand acts as the grounded plate of another variable capacitor. In this case, the capacitor detunes another oscillator; that detuning is processed to change the attenuation in the amplifier circuit. The distance between the performer's hand and the volume control antenna determines the capacitance, which regulates the theremin's volume.
Modern circuit designs often simplify this circuit and avoid the complexity of two heterodyne oscillators by having a single pitch oscillator, akin to the original theremin's volume circuit. This approach is usually less stable and cannot generate the low frequencies that a heterodyne oscillator can. Better designs (e.g. Moog, Theremax) may use two pairs of heterodyne oscillators, for both pitch and volume.
 Performance techniqueEasy to learn but notoriously difficult to master, theremin performance presents two challenges: reliable control of the instrument's pitch with no guidance (no keys, valves, frets, or finger-board positions), and minimizing undesired portamento that is inherent in the instrument's continuously-variable-pitch design.
Pitch control is challenging because, like a violin or trombone, a theremin generates tones of any pitch throughout its entire range, including those that lie between the conventional notes. And, unlike all other instruments, the theremin has no physical feedback (other than sound), like string tension or the tactile fingerboard for strings, or air column resistance in wind instruments. The player has to rely solely on what is heard, and can only correct a pitch when its volume is not at zero. (At least one theremin, possibly Moog, has a jack for headphones that receive the continuous pitch before its volume is changed.) In the case of some string instruments, the range is divided along the strings by use of length divisions (e.g., frets on a guitar). By contrast, in the case of the theremin, the entire range of pitches is controlled by the distance of the performer's hand or fingers to the pitch antenna in mid-air. Precise control of manual position coupled with an excellent sense of pitch is required, since the oscillator tuning tends to change slowly over time, resulting in changing positions for individual pitches.
Because some portamento is inevitable in theremin performance and because only the most experienced performers can reduce it to an inconspicuous level, the theremin repertoire of the vast majority[weasel words] of players is limited to compositions that were written to be performed legato, especially those for voice or continuously-variable-pitch instruments, and in which it is acceptable or even traditional to include some degree of portamento and glissando. Examples of works well suited for performance on the theremin include Massenet's Thaïs-Méditation (originally for violin), Rachmaninoff's Vocalise, and Saint-Saëns' Le cygne (The Swan) (originally for violoncello).
Using rapid and exact hand movements, however, highly skilled players can reduce undesired portamento and glissando to a level enabling them to play individual notes and even achieve staccato effects. Small and rapid movements of the hands can create tremolo or vibrato effects. Although pitch is governed primarily by the distance of the performer's hand to the pitch antenna, most precision thereminists augment their playing techniques with a system called "aerial fingering," largely devised by Clara Rockmore and subsequently adapted by Léon Theremin and his protege, Lydia Kavina. It employs specific hand and finger positions to alter slightly the amount of capacitance relative to the pitch antenna to produce small changes in tone quickly and in a manner that can be reliably and quickly reproduced.
An alternate and controversial "hands on" technique is called "angling." In this method the pitch control hand is actually set on the top of the theremin, thus violating the "no touch" creed of traditionalists. The performer changes the angle of the hand and fingers to alter the pitch and repositions the hand if the pitch interval is too large for "angling." Touching the instrument dampens the effect of extraneous movement on pitch. This permits the use of steady pitches without vibrato and without the performer's remaining perfectly still. There is also a way to ensure that no unnecessary sound is produced when someone moves around: the pitch knob on the side of the instrument can be turned until no sound is made when a body is nearby. (This is beneficial for members of a band who play more than one instrument, but it sacrifices a consistent pitch reference, since the instrument is then tuned to the relative environment, and not to the player's body; thus the distance between the tones will vary according to the venue.)
Equally important in theremin articulation is the use of the volume control antenna. Unlike touched instruments, where simply halting play or damping a resonator silences the instrument, the thereminist must "play the rests, as well as the notes," as Ms. Rockmore observes. Although volume technique is less developed than pitch technique, some thereminists have worked to extend it, especially Pamelia Kurstin with her "walking bass" technique.
Skilled players who overcome these challenges by a precisely controlled combination of movements can achieve complex and expressive performances, and thus realize a theremin's potential.
Some thereminists in the avant-garde openly rebel against developing any formalized technique, viewing it as imposing traditional limitations on an instrument that is inherently free form. These players choose to develop their own highly personalized techniques. The question of the relative value of formal technique versus free form performances is hotly debated among thereminists. Theremin artist Anthony Ptak uses antenna interference in live performance.
Recent versions of the theremin have been functionally updated: the Moog Ethervox, while functionally still a theremin, can also be used as a MIDI controller, and as such allows the artist to control any MIDI-compatible synthesizer with it, using the theremin's continuous pitch to drive modern synths.
 Concert music
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Concert composers who have written for theremin include Lera Auerbach, Bohuslav Martinů, Dmitri Shostakovich, Charles Ives, Olesya Rostovskaya, Percy Grainger, Christian Wolff, Joseph Schillinger, Alan Hovhaness, Edgar Varese, Moritz Eggert, Iraida Yusupova, Jorge Antunes, Vladimir Komarov, Anis Fuleihan and Dalit Warshaw.
A recent concert composition utilizing the theremin is Lera Auerbach's ballet The Little Mermaid, a three hour production featuring the theremin as the mermaid's voice throughout. The Royal Danish Ballet commissioned Russian- North American composer Auerbach to make a modern rendition of this fairy tale. It premiered on April 15, 2005 with Lydia Kavina as the theremin soloist. Kavina also performed in Olga Neuwirth's opera Bählamms Fest (after Leonora Carrington's Baa-Lamb's Holiday), which premiered in 1999. Elizabeth Brown composed "Rural Electrification", a chamber opera for voice, theremin and recorded sound, as well as "Piranesi" for theremin and string quartet and "Atlantis" for theremin and guitar. The instrument also features in Constantine Koukias' large-scale experimental opera, Tesla - Lightning in His Hand, which opened Tasmania's 2003 10 Days on the Island Festival.
Dalit Warshaw, a student of Clara Rockmore, is a composer, pianist and thereminist who has performed on the instrument with such ensembles as the New York Philharmonic and the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic, among others. Works written for theremin by Dalit Warshaw have been performed at Lincoln Center, Steinway Hall and at the L.A. Philharmonic's Disney Hall.
Lydia Kavina is a well known Russian thereminist composer and theremin instructor. She is the niece of one of Léon Theremin's first-degree cousins. Her repertoire consists primarily of classical and neo-classical compositions, many of which were written for the instrument. British thereminist Celia Sheen has contributed to many recordings and soundtracks, including the re-recordings of Rozsa's Spellbound Concerto and his complete Spellbound score, and Shostakovich's score to The Girlfriends for Naxos, both theremin parts in the re-release of Herrmann's The Day the Earth Stood Still, as well as her regular appearance on the soundtrack of Midsomer Murders.
In the United States, Pamelia Kurstin performs as a thereminist whose eclectic styles and innovations continue to expand the instrument's range. Her performances encompass the classical and jazz idioms, as well as in ethnic and avant-rock music with the band Barbez. More recently, the Armenian thereminist Armen Ra (also based in the United States) has promoted the instrument by performing popular, classical and Armenian music on the instruments.
Singer Song-writer Sting is currently using the Theremin in his 2010 worldwide tour "Symphonicities" during the song "Moon Over Bourbon Street". The instrument is used to create an eerie feel towards the end of the song.
 Popular music
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While The Beach Boys' "Good Vibrations" features an instrument that sounds much like a Theremin, in fact the sound is made by an instrument called the Tannerin.
Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin used a variation of the theremin (minus the loop) during performances of "Whole Lotta Love" and "No Quarter" throughout the performance history of Led Zeppelin, an extended multi-instrumental solo featuring theremin and bowed guitar in 1977, as well as the soundtrack for Death Wish II released in 1982.
Joe Perry of Aerosmith plays the theremin during their Cocked, Locked, Ready to Rock Tour as seen on this video.
Lothar and the Hand People, formed in Denver in 1965, used a Theremin (named "Lothar") onstage and on their LP.
The Lothars are a Boston-area band formed in early 1997 whose CDs have featured as many as four theremins played at once—a first for pop music.
Although credited with a "Thereman" [sic] on the "Mysterons" track from album Dummy, Portishead actually used a monophonic synthesizer to achieve theremin-like effects.
 Film musicDmitri Shostakovich was one of the first composers to include parts for the theremin in orchestral pieces, including a use in his score for the 1931 film Odna. While the theremin was not widely used in classical music performances, the instrument found great success in many motion pictures, notably, Spellbound, The Red House, The Lost Weekend (All three of which were written by Miklós Rózsa, the composer who pioneered the use of the instrument in Hollywood scores), The Spiral Staircase, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Thing (From Another World), The Ten Commandments (the 1956 DeMille film). More recent appearances in film scores include Monster House, Ed Wood and The Machinist (both featuring Lydia Kavina). The DVDs for Ed Wood, Bartleby and The Day the Earth Stood Still and Spellbound (Criterion Collection) include short features on the theremin. Robby Virus, the founder and theremin player of the band Project:Pimento, was featured on the soundtrack to the movie Hellboy (2004).
Throughout the theremin's use in film music from the 1940s to the 1960s, its sound was equated with the bizarre and alien life. Because of Clara Rockmore's professed distaste for such projects, the thereminist most commonly enlisted to perform anything from haunting melodies to eerie sound effects was Dr. Samuel Hoffman, whose performances can be heard most prominently in the soundtracks for Spellbound (1945) and The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951). Although it has been alleged that Ronald Stein, who is best known as a composer of film scores, also played the theremin on the soundtracks of such movies as The She Creature (1956) and the Queen of Blood (1966) such information has not been confirmed.
Actor Jerry Lewis plays a theremin briefly in the 1957 Paramount film The Delicate Delinquent. The latter part of the scene actually uses thereminist Samuel Hoffman in the soundtrack, to which Jerry Lewis mimes the motions of playing the instrument.
A theremin was played by Jimmy Page in the 1976 Led Zeppelin movie The Song Remains the Same.
A theremin was not used for the soundtrack of Forbidden Planet, for which Louis and Bebe Barron built "disposable" oscillator circuits and a ring modulator to create the "electronic tonalities" for the film.
Bruce Woolley provided all the Theremin parts for "Storm" the title song of The Avengers movie and also the "Sound Of Music" sequence in Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge!
Philadelphia thereminist Howard Mossman provided the theremin music for Jens Lien's 2006 award-winning film The Bothersome Man using an RCA theremin.
Los Angeles-based thereminist Charles Richard Lester is featured on the soundtrack of Monster House and has performed the US premiere of Gavriil Popov's 1932 score for Komsomol—Patron of Electrification with the L. A. Philharmonic and Esa-Pekka Salonen in 2007.
In the 2007 biopic parody film Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story, Dewey Cox suggests to one of his band members that he open his mind, and learn to play the theremin. It comes at a time when Dewey is using LSD pretty heavily, and has been working on his "masterpiece" album which is one very long song with countless obscure instruments, a full symphony, a vocal accompaniment of indigenous Australians and a goat. The scene is a parody of Brian Wilson, the driving force of The Beach Boys and the album Smile.
In a deleted scene from the 2009 documentary It Might Get Loud, Jack White from The White Stripes, The Edge from U2 and Jimmy Page from Led Zeppelin play around with a theremin. At one point Jimmy says, "It hasn't got six strings, but it's a lot of fun."
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- A theremin is used to generate the electronic wails of the energy monster in "The Invisible Monster" episode of the 1964 Hanna-Barbera animated series, Jonny Quest.
- In the February 17, 1998 I Am Weasel episode I Are Music Man, I.R. Baboon played the theremin he acquired from The Red Guy gatecrashing a live event to prove he's a better musician that Weasel.
- Coloratura soprano Loulie Jean Norman imitated the sound and feel of the theremin for Alexander Courage's theme for the original Star Trek TV series. Soprano Elin Carlson sang Norman's part when CBS-Paramount TV remastered the program's title sequence in 2006.
- The British television series Midsomer Murders uses a theremin in its popular theme tune as well as in underscore, to add depth and melody. The theremin part is played by Celia Sheen.
- In May, 2007, the White Castle American hamburger restaurant chain introduced a television ad featuring a theremin performance by musician Jon Bernhardt of the band The Lothars.
- In the novel Hannibal, Hannibal Lecter buys and plays a theremin as well as other musical instruments.
- A theremin is played at a wedding ceremony in the Herman Wouk novel Marjorie Morningstar
- The theremin is used as a literary device in "Constellations for Theremin" by Andrew Joron.
- In the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Captain Beatty says "If the drama is bad, if the film says nothing, if the play is hollow, sting me with the theremin, loudly. I'll think I'm responding to the play when it's only a tactile reaction to a vibration. But I don't care. I just like solid entertainment."
 Video games
- Composer Garry Schyman used a Theremin for the musical score of the 2005 videogame Destroy All Humans!
- Lydia Kavina's solo theremin is featured on the soundtrack for the 2006 MMORPG computer game Soul of the Ultimate Nation, composed by Howard Shore.
- The Homestar Runner universe character Homsar plays a theremin in the 2008 point-and-click adventure game Strong Bad's Cool Game for Attractive People - Episode 3: Baddest of the Bands.
 Similar instruments
- The Ondes-Martenot also uses the principle of heterodyning oscillators, but has a keyboard as well as a slide controller and is touched while playing.
- The Electro-Theremin (or Tannerin after Paul Tanner who played it in several productions including three tracks for The Beach Boys), built by Bob Whitsell in the 1950s, does not use heterodyning oscillators and has to be touched while playing, but it allows continuous variation of the frequency range and sounds similar to the theremin.
- The Persephone, an analogue fingerboard synthesizer with CV and MIDI, inspired by the trautonium. The Persephone allows continuous variation of the frequency range from 1 to 10 octaves. The ribbon is pressure and position sensitive.
- The Electronde, invented in 1929 by Martin Taubman, has an antenna for pitch control, a handheld switch for articulation and a foot pedal for volume control.
- The Syntheremin is an extension of the theremin.
- The Croix Sonore (Sonorous Cross), is based on the theremin. It was developed by Russian composer Nicolas Obouchov in France, after he saw Lev Theremin demonstrate the theremin in 1924.
- The terpsitone, also invented by Theremin, consisted of a platform fitted with space-controlling antennae, through and around which a dancer would control the musical performance. By most accounts, the instrument was nearly impossible to control. Of the three instruments built, only the last one, made in 1978 for Lydia Kavina, survives today.
- The Z.Vex Effects Fuzz Probe, Wah Probe and Tremolo Probe, using a theremin to control said effects. The Fuzz Probe can be used as a theremin, as it can through feedback oscillation create tones of any pitch.
- The Haken Continuum Fingerboard uses a continuous, flat playing surface along which the player slides his fingers to create the desired pitch and timbre values. Describable as "a continuous pitch controller that resembles a keyboard, but has no keys."
- The MC-505 by Roland being able using the integrated D-Beam-sensor like a Theremin
 See also
- American Museum of Radio and Electricity, which features a theremin that visitors can play.
- The Exploratorium in San Francisco has a restored RCA Theremin playable by visitors.
- The Pacific Science Center also has a theremin on display that guests can try to play. It is located in the lobby of the Boeing IMAX Theater building.
- The Music Museum in Stockholm, Sweden has a theremin that visitors can play.
- The first theremin concert for aliens in the Teen Age Message sent to space.
- ^ Theremin World
- ^ The London Mercury Vol.XVII No.99 1928
- ^ Albert Glinsky, Ether Music and Espionage, p.285
- ^ UNT: Strupsång, theremin och vägen inåt
- ^ Glinsky pp. 117-118,196.
- ^ "The Theremin". Thereminvox. May 9, 2007. http://www.thereminvox.com/. Retrieved 2010-07-13. "financially supported Léon Theremin's work"
- ^ Tell Me More, BBC, h2g2 project, Undated.Accessed:05-20-2008.
- ^ History of the Theremin, Moog Music, Undated.Accessed:05-20-2008.
- ^ MRQE - Movie Review Query Engine - Theremin, see also the rare 100% score at Rotten Tomatoes
- ^ a b Theremin Comparison Chart
- ^ A review for the Enkelaar Theremin (and others)
- ^ "RCA Theremin circuit diagram". http://www.pavekmuseum.org/theremin/theop.html.
- ^ Theremin Vox - In Clara's Words
- ^ Pamelia Kurstin plays the Theremin. Kurstin shows the technique about 3 minutes into the video
- ^ Etherwave Theremins
- ^ a b c d e f "Lydia Kavina Music from the Ether". Mode Records. http://www.moderecords.com/catalog/076theremin.html. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- ^ a b "Barbara Buchholz / Lydia Kavina / Kammerensemble Neue Musik Berlin - Touch! Don't Touch! - Works For Theremin". discogs.com. http://www.discogs.com/Barbara-Buchholz-Lydia-Kavina-Kammerensemble-Neue-Musik-Berlin-Touch-Dont-Touch-Works-For-Theremin/release/1025250. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- ^ "Anis Fuleihan (Composer, Arranger)". bach-cantatas.com. 2007-06-10. http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Fuleihan-Anis.htm. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- ^ Amazon.com: Ionisation: Thomas Arne, Ludwig van Beethoven, Edward Elgar, Anis Fuleihan, Edgard Varese, Arturo Toscanini, Henry J. Wood, Jean Sibelius, Leopold Stokowski, Nicolas Slonimsky, Wilhelm Furtwängler, BBC Symphony Orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra, New York Symphony Orchestra, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Clara Rockmore: Music
- ^ Music out of the Moon, Harry Revel, conducted by Les Baxter, Capitol Records Nr. T390, released 1947
- ^ "IEEEGHN: The Theremin". IEEE. 2008. http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Theremin. Retrieved 2008-10.22.
- ^ http://www.tompolk.com/Tannerin/Tannerin.html
- ^ A Simple Theremin Project. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- ^ http://www.lotharandthehandpeople.com/
- ^ Pomerantz, Dorothy (September 17, 1998). "The Lothars revive the spooky sounds of the theremin". Somerville Journal.
- ^ Glinsky, Albert (2000). Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. pp. 129,161,288,341. ISBN 0-252-02582-2. http://books.google.com/?id=6DHlQJcMpBQC&printsec=frontcover.
- ^ Interview with David Utley on Soundonsound, June 1995
- ^ "Full cast and crew for Maquinista, El". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0361862/fullcredits. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
- ^ Hellboy cast list
- ^ "Forbidden Planet". MovieDiva. http://www.moviediva.com/MD_root/reviewpages/MDForbiddenPlanet.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-16.
- ^ Notes about film soundtrack and CD, MovieGrooves-FP
- ^ imdb details for "Monster House"
- ^ L. A. Philharmonic concert details
- ^ Thereminist Oscar in posting about Theremin: Ghostly electronic music with a modern twist at Retro Thing website, 07-18-2006.Accessed: 05-20-2008.
- ^ Elin Carlson's website, Undated. Accessed: 05-20-2008.
- ^ Maxwell, Francis (May 2005). "Hands off for gripping theremin concert in Barnes" (PDF). London Harmony: 6. http://www.makingmusiclondon.com/london-harmony/PDFs/2005-may.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
- ^ White Castle Ad on YouTube
- ^ Laban, Linda (May 7, 2007). "The geek who captured the Castle". [The Boston Globe]: pp. C4,C8. http://www.boston.com/ae/music/articles/2007/05/07/the_geek_who_captured_the_castle/.
- ^ "Constellations for Theremin," in Andrew Joron, Fathom (New York: Black Square Editions, 2003).
- ^ IGN Interview
- ^ GameDaily: "Ode to Joystick"
- ^ Homsar's Instruments - Homestar Runner Wiki
- ^ Bloch, Thomas. "ONDES MARTENOT **** THOMAS BLOCH --- the instrument : videos, pictures, works, facts...". http://www.thomasbloch.net/en_ondes-martenot.html. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- ^ "Tannerin 2004". http://www.tompolk.com/Tannerin/Tannerin.html. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- ^ "The Paul Tanner Electro-Theremin Page". http://www.electrotheremin.com/etfaq.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- ^ Taubman demonstrates his Electronde. Stills and a downloadable video at British Pathe news archive. 1938-12-12.